NU Hadronic Physics Links

 
 

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/santilli-scientific-discoveries-4.html


http://www.i-b-r.org/Hadronic-Mechanics.htm


Isodual Theory of Antimatter, Antigravity and Spacetime Machines

http://www.santilli-galilei.com/HMMC-II-01-19-08.pdf


"Isotopic, Genotopic and Hyperstructural Methods in Theoretical Biology"
R. M. Santilli, Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1997) The Australian biologist Chris R. Illert provided important input in Santilli's studies in biology, on which we quote the joint monograph

Experimental Verifications, Theoretical Advances and Industrial Applications in Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics


http://www.santilli-galilei.com/HMMC-IV-01-22-08.PDF


Iso-, Geno-, Hyper-Formulations for Matter and Their Isoduals for Antimatter

http://www.santilli-galilei.com/HMMC-III-01-19-08.pdf


Limitations of Einstein's Special and General Relativities,Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry

http://www.santilli-galilei.com/HMMC-I-01-21-08m.pdf


Experimental Verifications, Theoretical Advances and Industrial Applications in Chemistry

http://www.santilli-galilei.com/HMMC-V-01-19-08.pdf



SEE: http://www.santilli-galilei.com/home.html


ALSO:

Etherino-Neutrino-I-FP.pdf


http://www.magnecules.com


"Foundation of Theoretical Conchology"
C. R. Illert and R. M. Santilli, Hadronic Press (1995)

It should be stressed that in this chapter we shall present for notational simplicity only the projection of dr. Santilli's hadronic chemistry on a conventional Hilbert space over a conventional field, so as to avoid the complex notations of the full hadronic treatment. The understanding is that only the latter treatment resolves the Theorems of Catastrophic Inconsistencies of Section 3.7. Therefore, readers without a technical knowledge of hadronic mechanics are suggested to abstain from venturing judgments on the content of this chapter so as to avoid a clear illusion of knowledge.


Nonlocal-integral isotopies of differential calculus, mechanics and geometries
R. M. Santilli, Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (1996).

The main historical reference in hadronic chemistry is the 2001 monograph on Foundation of Hadronic Chemistry hereon refereed to as FHC:

"Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry,
with Applications to New Clean Energies and Fuels"

R. M. Santilli, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2001)

Subsequent studies can be found in Hadronic Mathematics Mechanics and Chemistry, hereon referred to as HMMC Volumes I, II, III, IV and V:

Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry, Volumes I, II, III, IV and V:
R. M. Santilli,
International Academic Press (2008)

Santilli's discovery of new magnecular fuels with complete combustion, and related industrial realization, can be found in the monograph

The novel magnecular species of hydrogen and oxygen with increased specific weight and energy content
R. M. Santilli,
Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 28, 177-196 (2003)

A general review of the new species of magnecules is available from the monograph

The New Fuels with Magnecular Structure
Ruggero Maria Santilli

International Academic Press (2008)
200 pages
Italian translation by Giovanna Bonfanti and Michele Sacerdoti, published by Editori Riuniti, Roma, Italy, and available at
I Nuovi Carburanti con Struttura Magnecolare

Nonlocal isotopic representation of the Cooper pair in superconductivity
A. O. E. Animalu and R. M. santilli, Intern. J. Quantum Chemistry Vol. 29, 175-187 (1995)

Vast studies in the field were conducted by Animalu and reviewed in details in HMMC, Volume V, where Santilli gave the name of Animalu isosuperconductivity to the resulting new discipline.

4.2B. Santilli-Shillady strong valence bond (1999)

The central problem of molecular chemistry is the verification of Conditions 1, 2, 3 of Section 4.1. This objective was achieved by R. M. Santilli and the American chemist D. D. Shillady in the historical paper of 1999 .

A new isochemical model of the hydrogen molecule
R. M. Santilli and D. D. Shillady, Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 24, pages 943-956 (1999)

A new isochemical model of the hydrogen molecule
R. M. Santilli and D. D. Shillady, Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 24, pages 943-956 (1999)

Exact variational solution of the restricted three-body Santilli-Shillady model of the hydrogen molecule
A.K. Aringazin and M.G. Kucherenko
, Hadronic J. Vol. 23, 1-56 (2000) (physics/0001056)

The exact analytic solution of model (4.14) was achieved in 2007 by R. Perez-Enriquez and R. Riera in the paper

Exact analytic solution of the restricted three-body Santilli-Shillady model of the hydrogen molecule
R. Perez-Enriquez and R. Riera
, Progress in Physics Vol. 2, 34-41 (2007) (physics/0001056)

A new isochemical model of the water molecule
R. M. Santilli and D. D. Shillady, Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 25, 173-183 (2000)

On a variational solution of the four-body Santilli-Shillady model of the hydrogen molecule
A.K. Aringazin, Hadronic J. Vol. 23, 57-113 (2000), physics/0001057.

Isoelectronium correlations as a nonlinear two-dimensional two-particles tunnel effect
A.K. Aringazin and M.B. Semenov, Hadronic Journal Vol. 23, 25-53 (2000).

Theoretical prediction and experimental verification of the new chemical species of magnecules,
R. M. Santilli,
Hadronic J. Vol. 21, 789-894 (1998)

with a detailed presentation in FHC and an update in the monograph of 2008

The New Fuels with Magnecular Structure
Ruggero Maria Santilli
International Academic Press (2008)
200 pages
Italian translation by Giovanna Bonfanti and Michele Sacerdoti, published by Editori Riuniti, Roma, Italy, and available at

I Nuovi Carburanti con Struttura Magnecolare

Estimate of the polarized magnetic moment of the isoelectronium in the hydrogen molecule
M.G. Kucherenko and A.K. Aringazin, Hadronic J. Vol. 21, 895-902 91998.

Additional comprehensive studies were conducted by A. K. Aringazin, as in the paper

Toroidal configuration of the orbit of the electron of the hydrogen atom under strong external magnetic fields
A.K. Aringazin, to appear in Hadronic J. (2001).

"Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry,
with Applications to New Clean Energies and Fuels"

R. M. Santilli, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2001)

Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry, Volume V:
R. M. Santilli,
International Academic Press (2008)

The novel magnecular species of hydrogen and oxygen with increased specific weight and energy content
R. M. Santilli,
Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 28, 177-196 (2003)

A new gaseous and combustion form of water
R. M. Santilli, Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 31, pages 1113-1128 (2006)

It should be stressed that, due to two years of delays between the date of acceptance of the above paper and that of its publication, a considerable confusion resulted and the above quoted printed version is NOT the final version approved by Santilli but that of uncorrected galleys with several garblings such as those in the symbols as well as misprints. For the correct version, we refer the reader to the monograph

The New Fuels with Magnecular Structure
Ruggero Maria Santilli
International Academic Press (2008)
200 pages
Italian translation by Giovanna Bonfanti and Michele Sacerdoti, published by Editori Riuniti, Roma, Italy, and available at

I Nuovi Carburanti con Struttura Magnecolare


Fox News video on the Magnegas Technology

Video by Dunedin Water Treatment Plant

Invited presentation at the United Nations

Video by Magnegas Corporation


Hydrogen Technology Applications, Inc.


The novel magnecular species of hydrogen and oxygen with increased specific weight and energy content
R. M. Santilli,
Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 28, 177-196 (2003)


Rudiments of molecular and magnecular combustions
A. K. Aringazin and R. M. Santilli, Preprint of the Eurasian University (2009) to be published

"Isotopic, Genotopic and Hyperstructural Methods in Theoretical Biology"
R. M. Santilli,
Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1997)


"Foundation of Theoretical Conchology"
C. R. Illert and R. M. Santilli, Hadronic Press (1995)


Nonlocal-integral isotopies of differential calculus, mechanics and geometries
R. M. Santilli, Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (1996).


"Elements of Hadronic Mechanics", Vol. I: "Mathematical Foundations"
R. M. Santilli
, Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1993),

"Elements of Hadronic Mechanics" Vol. II: "Theoretical Foundations"
R. M. Santilli,
Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1994)

4.5D. Hypermolecules, hypermagnecules and hyperliquids

The origin of Santilli's prolific discoveries in so different fields is his conviction that quantitative sciences will never admit final descriptions, a limitation that he applied primarily to his own advances. As an example, following the discovery of the isonumbers (Section 2.2A) that, alone, would have assured his name in the history of mathematics, Santilli identified their limitations and, in so doing, discovered the genonumbers; then he identified their limitations and, in so doing, discovered the hypernumbers; then he identified their limitations and, in so doing, discovered the isodual numbers.

Santilli systematically applied this self-criticism to essentially all his discoveries. Consider, for instance, the achievement t of the first known quantitative representation of molecules and their valence bond with an explicitly identified attractive valence force in complete agreement with experimental data (section 4.2). That achievement, alone, was sufficient to set his name in the history of chemistry. Nevertheless, Santilli remained dissatisfied because he considered the advance excessively limited with respect to the complexities of nature.

Consider, for instance, the water molecule. It is popularly believed that such a molecule has one and only one representation, and that it is the same whether it is in our atmosphere or part of a cell. Santilli considers such a view rather arrogant because it assumes a final knowledge of one of the most complex structures in the universe with capabilities and feature simply beyond our imagination at this writing. In reality, there are reasons to expect that, when all features of a cell are taken into account, including its reproductive capacity, each water molecule of a cell is in some form of communication with all the remaining molecules of the same cell. Additional evidence indicates that one water molecule of one cell may well be in some form of communication with all other cells of a body, and so on.

The only quantitative way of initiating the study of such a complexity is via hypermathematics. In this way, Santilli worked out in a paper made available to the Foundation(and expected to be published soon for uploading in pdf format when completed) his model of hypermolecules essentially consisting in the reformulation of the molecular models of Sections 4.2 via multi-valued hypermathematics.

Santilli then applied the same self-critical analysis to his magnecules to discover, again, their excessive limitations for biological structure. In this way, in an additional paper made available to the Foundation and expected to be published, Santilli introduced his hypermagnecules, namely, nonvalence bonds primarily due to opposing magnetic (and electric) polarizations, each bond being multivalued.

Santilli hyperliquid is, therefore, composed by hypermolecules under hypermagnecular bonds by achieving in this way one of the most complex structures known to the authors, not only for mathematical treatment, but also because of the truly unlimited possibilities of interconnections at a distance, as manifestly necessary for any serious understanding of the complexities of bio;logical systems.




Figure 4.28: The fusion of two gametes to form a zygote and initiate a new life. Santilli argues that the original two individual gametes, generally classified as cells, have in reality an extremely complex structure since they show a specific purpose, movements and action. Hence, their cytoplasm and other components cannot be merely made up of ordinary molecules with quantitatively unknown valence bond and links into a liquid state via quantitatively unknown H-bridges. Hence, he represents each individual genome via his notion of hyperliquid. Additionally, Santilli argues that the two gametes cannot be considered independent one from the other since they seek each other. A representation of this interconnection at a distance is also permitted by the notion of hyperliquid, since the latter allows, in principle, the connection of one cell with all possible cells existing in the universe, of course in a way inversely proportional to the square of the distance, much along the fact that the wavepacket of one electron can be considered to be null only at infinite distance.


4.5E. Deciphering the DNA code?

The deciphering of the code contained in a DeoxiribonNucleic Acid (DNA) is, by far, the most cryptographic problem facing mankind. Santilli felt repugnance to the idea that a code of such a complexity could be understood with the ordinary numbers 1, 2, 3, ... dating back to pre-biblical times. With the understanding that the achievement of a solution will require centuries of studies, Santilli introduced his multi-valued hypernumbers for the specific intent of initiating quantitative studies on the DNA code.

The main argument is that the association of two atoms in a DNA can produce an entire organ, such as the liver, with an extremely large number of constituents. The association of two atoms A1 and A1 in a DNA can be mathematically represented via the multiplication. The multiplicity of the results of the original association then leads, inevitably, to Santilli hypernumbers in which the product of two elements can give rise to an ordered, but unlimited number of results, e.g.,


(4.55) A1 x A1 = { 1.7684, ∫ f(r)dr, 745.344, log(p^er), .......}.


The capability by the hypernumbers of at least initiating the deciphering of the DNA code is evident. Despite these evident possibilities, Santilli call published in the historical 1997 monograph

"Isotopic, Genotopic and Hyperstructural Methods in Theoretical Biology"
R. M. Santilli, Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1997) as well as in other papers, has remained unanswered by biologists, perhaps due to their limitation to understand Santilli's mathematics. The point is that, without an adequate advanced mathematics, biologists merely have the illusions of advances in their field.


4.5F. Understanding the DNA structure?

Santilli never accepted as final the idea that the DNA has a molecular structure, as stated in the best books in the field (see also wikipedia) because excessive simplistic when compared to the complexities of the structure considered. Therefore,he suggested that the DNA has a magnecular structure, namely, it is characterized by atoms that, in part, are under a molecular bond, and in part under a magnecular bond. The hypothesis is strongly supported by the numerous unknown "H-bridges" in the field, with Santilli magnecular bond with a clearly identified attractive force.

Despite a clear advance over rather simplistic models in the literature, Santilli remained dissatisfied with said magnecular structure because basically insufficient to provide the extremely complex inter-relations needed to explain the production of a large organism from a minute helix of atoms.

In this way, he reached one of his most important notions, that that the DNA has a hypermagnecular structure, as conceptually indicated in the preceding sections. This essentially means the conception of the DNA as being composed of atoms under hypermolecular bonds that, in turn, are under a hypermagnecular bond.

A rather feverish research is ongoing at a number of corporations in the U.S.A. and abroad. We regret the prohibition to report these studies because of expected disruptions by academic chemists usually aimed at halting the funding to suppress undesired advances.




Figure 4.29: Santilli never accepted as final the idea that the DNA is a "molecule" (see wikipedia and advanced references quoted therein) for various reason. To begin, valence electrons can solely bond in pairs under singlet couplings resulting in bosons with null spin (Figure 4.2). A first year graduate student knows that no additional spin 1/2 electron can be credibly bonded to a spin 0 valence electron pair. Therefore, the belief that five hundred million atoms of a DNA could be kept together by valence bonds caused the exiting of science in favor of theology. The next possibility is that a DNA could be a "liquid" since its molecules are admitted in the literature as being bonded by "H-=bridges." However, this alternative hypothesis is faced with gross inconsistencies, e.g., the doubling of cells, the fusion of gamedes, and other basic events deviate from the prediction of liquid structures (e.g., via surface tension), again, to such an extent of causing the exiting of science in favor of theology. Santilli's main stand is that the structure of the DNA is immensely beyond all 20th century knowledge of chemistry. To initiate scientific, that is, quantitative studies, Santilli introduced first the hypothesis that the DNA has a magnecular structure so as to replaced the nomenclature of "H-bridges" with equations and actual attractive forces discussed in Section 4.3E. However, the hypothesis soon turned out to be insufficient, e.g., because of the inability to represent cell interconnections at a distance (Figure 4.28). Consequently, Santilli formulated the broader hypothesis that the DNA has the structure of a hypermagnecule. A rather feverish research is going on at U. S. and foreign companies (rather than academia) along a hierarchy of hypermagnecular structures of increasing complexity, the first one being that bonding together hypermolecules, the second one at the level of chromosomes, and so on. It is regrettable that the current condition of scientific ethics in academic chemistry prevents the disclosure of these industrial studies.


4.5G. A future new cure for cancer?

Self-appointed pseudo-scientist generally dub as "semantic" basic advances without any serious study because beyond their comprehension. This is also the case for Santilli's discoveries in biology, although by a rapidly decreasing number of academicians. The problem for said pseudo-scientist is that all Santilli discoveries have concrete applications under development by the industry and certainly not by academia, with due exceptions, because of the novelty.

Santilli introduced the notion of magneliquid for the specific intent of initiating the transition from microwave ovens exciting individual molecules of a liquid such as water, to a new generation of equipment that disrupts the magnecular bond between molecules. The development of the latter equipment is evidently prohibited by the conventional notion of "H-bridges" due to their pure nomenclature character without quantitative treatment. By comparison magnecular bonds in a liquid can indeed be treated quantitatively. Additionally, all magnetic effects are known to have a temperature at which they disappears (the Curie temperature).

A new equipment that disrupts the magnecular bond between molecules can be attempted in a number of ways, e.g., via microwaves causing the magnecular Curie temperature at the microscopic level of individual molecular couplings, which equipment is currently under development by the industry. One of the most important possible application of these advances is a basically new cure for cancer indicated in Figure 4.30.



Figure 4.30: Santilli's original hand drawing illustrating a possible future elimination of cancer. The principle is the disruption of the magnecular bond between molecules, whether within a cell, a DNA or other structures depending on the case at hand. In the event the procedure is possible, it is predicted not to require surgery because the achievement of the Curie temperature for the disruption of magnecular bonds in a DNA can be achieved by two microwaves that are individually non-disruptive for human tissues, and are disruptive solely at their intersection, as illustrated in the figure. We regret the inability to report the ongoing industrial research in the field to prevent academic disruptions.


Cloonan's advances in Santilli Magnecules

The cplex-isoelectronic theory is a new theory of pericyclic chemical reactions and aromatic molecules, within the field of organic chemistry, which is based on an expansion of the Robinson electronic theory of organic chemistry. The cplex-isoelectronic theory is a qualitative and regularity based theory (see http://www.cplex-isoelectronic.com)


Application of the Cplex-isoelectronic theory to electrocyclisations, sigmatropic rearrangements, cheletropic reactions and antiaromaticity: Consistent with Santilli's hadronic chemistry.
M. O. Cloonan
Int J Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 32, pages 3026-3039 (2007)


A new electronic theory of pericyclic chemistry and aromaticity is proposed: The Cplex-isoelectronic theory. Consistent with Santilli's hadronic chemistry.
M. O. Cloonan
, Int J Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 32, pages 159-171 (2007)

 

HADRONIC MECHANICS HYPER-JUMP TO UNIFY THE FIELDS